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Enrico Vassallo (11/11/2021 9:57 AM): Addition of items 21-24

Vassallo Enrico (7/20/2016 4:19 AM): Addition of goals 17-20

CCSDS Tech Support (5/2/2010 8:03 PM): Addition of goals 11 and 12 as requested by NGU WG and approved by SLS area
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Name of Group

5.01 RF and Modulation Working Group


Space Link Services Area (SLS)


Dennis Lee

Chairperson E-Mail Address

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Gunther Sessler

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Scope of Activity

Rationale for Activity

Agencies are planning demanding missions to the Moon with links at 2 GHz for low data rates and 22 (the band near 22 GHz)/26 GHz for very high data rates, as well as missions to Mars with 32 GHz trunk links. The 22 (the band near 22 GHz), 26 and 32 GHz frequency bands are not covered by the existing RF and Modulation Blue Book (401.0-B-16). New techniques may be needed for the 2 GHz links to the Moon.
The Proximity-1 Physical Layer Blue Book (211.1-B-3) has to undergo the 5-years review; additionally, the other two layers Blue Books and the Green Book have to be reviewed for what concerns the requirements having RF&Modulation implications.

Additionally, developing requirements on phase/amplitude imbalance and phase noise for the advanced modulation schemes of the current Blue Book (recommendation 2.4.17A) is needed.
The bandwidth-efficient modulations Green Book (413.0-G-1) needs has to be updated to reflect the recent changes in the Blue Book relating to recommendation 2.4.17B, 2.4.18 as well as a number of nomenclature changes (bit and symbol rate definition, OQPSK filtering, T-OQPSK suppression, etc.) Moreover, a mixture of informative and normative information exists in the current Green Book, which is confusing. The normative part has to be removed from the Green Book and inserted in 2.4.17A, 2.4.17B and 2.4.18.

Additionally, 2.4.17A includes a number of modulations that have not been used to date nor are expected to be used in the foreseeable future. Re-opening discussion on 2.4.17A could solve this problem and provide a basis to respond to the request from IOAG on trying to limit the number of schemes allowed by 2.4.17A.

The Green Book (412.0-G-1) on RF Spacecraft-Earth Station Compatibility Test Procedure has to be reviewed and updated in line with current practices if deemed necessary.

Additionally, this WG will develop a Green Book that will include, on the one hand those requirements on local planetary communications in support to future manned and unmanned missions to the moon, Mars and other solar system bodies such as asteroids, and on the other hand state-of-the-art system concepts, techniques and technologies candidates for possible standardization. The requirements will focus on offering increased data transfer capability as compared with current standards (Proximity-1), but also consider networking capability and increased interoperability.


The goals of this Working Group are to:
1) Develop modulation recommendations for 22 (the band near 22 GHz), 26 and 32 GHz high rate links;

2) Develop recommendations for Lunar missions to operate at 2 GHz with other users;

3) Revise the recommended schemes in 2.4.17A and develop necessary companion recommendations on imbalances and other impairments;

4) Update 413.0-G-1 in line with recent changes to 401.0-B-16 and move normative text from 413 to 401 (as attachments to 2.4.17A, 2.4.17B and 2.4.18);

5) Update the RF and Modulation Book CCSDS 401.0-B-16 set of recommendations on modulation techniques as per items 1 to 4 above and possible changes required by technical or regulatory issues;

6) Review the RF and Modulation Compatibility Test Procedures Book CCSDS 412.0-G-1 and update it if necessary;

7) Study future Earth Exploration-Satellite-Service requirements in terms of modulation schemes with signaling efficiency better than the schemes in recommendation 401 (2.4.18) for the 8025-8400 MHz band and possibly the 25.5-27.0 GHz band, and study performance of the advanced modulation schemes proposed by the coding and synchronization WG;

8) Study efficient way to combine high rate telemetry and PN ranging with suppressed carrier modulations for the space research service bands;

9) Study the NGU requirements for file uploading and as a consequence update recommendation 2.2.8;

10) Study the NGU requirements for MSPA support and as a consequence develop flexible turn-around ratios recommendations for the 7/8, 34/32 and 40/37 GHz bands or an alternative technique to provide MSPA (multi-carrier operations, CDMA, etc.);

11) Study impairments for 4D-8PSK TCM and propose relevant recommendations;

12)Review the Proximity-1 Blue and Green Books and propose changes if needed;

13) Perform 5-years review of 413.0-G-2 and update it as needed;

14) Co-operate with SLS-C&S for ACM/VCM techniques for the 26 GHz EESS channel;

15) Study turn-around ratios for the new EESS uplink allocation at 7 GHz in association with the 8 GHz downlink and propose relevant recommendation;

16) Propose changes to DDOR recommendation 2.5.6B for low cost missions;

17) Study telemetry ranging concept and propose relevant recommendation;

18) Study modulation technique and position for pilots symbols of high order modulations used in conjunction with the codes of CCSDS 131.0-B-2.

19) Develop high order modulations recommendation for space research (Cat. A) missions in the 8450-8500 MHz band based (subset) on the ones for earth exploration satellites.

20) Propose changes to DDOR recommendation 2.5.6B for more performing and less interfering wideband pseudo-noise (WB PN) DDOR signal.

21) Propose changes to Proximity Physical BB (211x1b4) relating to channel frequencies, modulations, and requirements from future Martian/Lunar scenarios.

22) Address requirements of Position, Navigation and Time (PNT) related to the Lunar environment in cooperation with CCSDS NAV WG and SFCG, and issue relevant recommendations covering frequency bands, modulations, etc.

23) Prepare green book material to address project issues on filtering implementation to comply with SFCG spectral mask recommendation 21-2R4.

24) Study phase noise including both transmitters and receivers for space-to-space links and lunar surface equipment.

Survey of Similar Standards Efforts Undertaken in
Other Bodies and elsewhere in CCSDS

Patent Licensing Applicability for Future Standards

None have been identified. 

Technical Risk Mitigation Strategy

No technical risks have been identified.

Management Risk Mitigation Strategy

Schedules are dependent upon Agency participation.
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 Approved Projects

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Currently 9 Projects     
Document Type
Project Status
Project Phase
Modified By
Update Bandwidth efficient modulation green bookGreenAll Tasks CompletedProject CompletedCCSDS Tech Support 
Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol—Physical Layer, Issue 4BlueAll Tasks CompletedProject CompletedCCSDS Tech Support 
Pseudo-Noise (PN) Ranging Systems (Review of Issue 1)BlueAll Tasks CompletedProject CompletedCCSDS Tech Support 
Pseudo-Noise (PN) Ranging Systems (Review of Issue 1 GREEN BOOK)GreenAll Tasks CompletedProject CompletedCCSDS Tech Support 
Simultaneous Transmission of GMSK Telemetry and PN RangingGreenAll Tasks CompletedProject CompletedBrian Oliver 
Bandwidth-Efficient Modulations: Summary of Definition, Implementation, and Performance (UPDATE)GreenAll Tasks CompletedProject CompletedBrian Oliver 
Pseudo-Noise (PN) Ranging Systems - Issue 3BlueAll Tasks CompletedProject CompletedBrian Oliver 
Simultaneous Transmission of GMSK Telemetry and PN Ranging - Issue2GreenAll Tasks CompletedProject CompletedBrian Oliver 
Evolutions of CCSDS recommendations for RF & Modulation systems, part 1BlueOn ScheduleSecond draft comments dueBrian Oliver